What is Riigikogu?
The Riigikogu is the representative body of the people of Estonia; its members are elected by the people. The Riigikogu holds legislative power.Read more
What does Riigikogu do?
The Riigikogu is a representative body that makes laws, adopts resolutions, exercises parliamentary supervision and develops foreign relations.Read more
The Riigikogu conducts proceedings on bills at three readings. Passed Acts are proclaimed by the President of the Republic.Read more
Supervision of the activities of the executive power is an important task of the Riigikogu.Read more
The foreign relations of the Riigikogu are managed by the Foreign Affairs Committee and the delegations of the Riigikogu.Read more
Elections of the Riigikogu
The elections of the Riigikogu are held every four years. Voting is secret, and there are 14 different ways of voting, including electronic voting (e-voting).Read more
Structure of the Riigikogu
The structure of the Riigikogu is formed of the Board, the factions and the committees of the Riigikogu. Three-member Board is chaired by the President of the Riigikogu.Read more
Involvement of the society is an important part of the work of the parliament in a democratic country. The Riigikogu is expecting purposeful proposals on how to make the life in Estonia better from individuals and organisations.
The documents of the Riigikogu are generally public. The documents of the proceedings on draft legislation, verbatim records of the Riigikogu, minutes of the committees, etc. are in estonian and can be found here.
Submit an information request if you want a specific document or information we possess. We reply to information requests on the same day, if that is possible, but not later than within 5 working days. We cannot reply to your information request if you ask information intended for internal use or other information the publication of which is restricted, like personal data.
If your request requires the analysis or synthesis of the information we possess, collecting additional information or legal explanation, it is a request for explanation. We have to reply to it in 30 calendar days. We follow similar procedure in replying to memorandums in which you make us proposals on organising our work, and forward information connected with public life and governance of the state.
Collective proposal can be used for making a proposal to the Riigikogu to amend the current regulation or improve the community life. The address should have at least 1000 signatures in support given by citizens of Estonia. The address can be submitted electronically and on paper.
We will reply to you at the earliest opportunity, not later than within 5 working days.Read more
We will reply to you at the earliest opportunity, not later than within 30 working days.Read more
We will reply to you at the earliest opportunity, not later than within 30 working days.Read more
The first parliament-like representative body in the area of Estonia under the rule of the Russian Empire, was the Provisional Assembly of Estonia or Maapäev. It operated from 14 July 1917 until 23 April 1919, made several important decisions and declared the independence of Estonia. Maapäev was the supreme power in Estonia until the convocation of the democratically elected Constituent Assembly. This was the first step towards sovreignity.
The Constituent Assembly was the first parliament of Estonia. The Constituent Assembly acted as the national representative body and the legislative power of Estonia from 23 April 1919 until 20 December 1920. It was the task of the Constituent Assembly to lay the foundations for the Estonian statehood, to adopt the Constitution and the Land Act. The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held on 5–7 April 1919. Of the ten political parties and groupings that took part in the elections, four deserve more attention: Estonian Rural Union led by Konstantin Päts, Estonian People's Party led by Jaan Tõnisson, Estonian Labour Party and Estonian Social Democratic Workers Party. The voter turnout was high – 80% of eligible voters took part in the elections.
The 1st Riigikogu held the legislative power in Estonia from 20 December 1920 until 20 May 1923. Its members belonged to ten political parties and electoral alliances, most notably the Estonian Labour Party, Farmers' Assemblies, Estonian Social Democratic Workers Party, Estonian People’s Party, and Estonian Independent Socialist Workers' Party.
The 1st parliament passed many important legal acts, including the Estonian Flag Act, Citizenship Act, Print Act, and Fishing Act.
The 2nd Riigikogu held the legislative power in Estonia from 31 May 1923 until 14 June 1926. Its members belonged to 14 political parties and election unions, most notably the Farmers' Assemblies, Estonian Social Democratic Workers Party, Estonian Labour Party, and Workers' United Front.
The parliament passed several important legal acts, including the State Authority Protection Act, Cultural Autonomy of Minority Nations Act, University of Tartu Act, National Coat of Arms Act, Marital Status Act, Riigikogu Elections, Referendums and People's Initiative Act, and Obligatory Defence Forces Service Act.
The 3rd Riigikogu held the legislative power in Estonia from 15 June 1926 until 14 June 1929. Its members represented ten political parties and electoral alliances. The parties that had the most seats were the Estonian Socialist Workers Party, Farmers' Assemblies, Settlers, State Tenants and Smallholders Group, and Estonian Labour Party.
The most important decisions included the passing of the Statutes of the Bank of Estonia, and the Currency Act that introduced the new Estonian currency – kroons and cents. The metric system was also introduced in Estonia.
The 4th Riigikogu held the legislative power in Estonia from 15 June 1929 to 14 June 1932. Its members represented ten political parties and election coalitions. The Estonian Socialist Workers Party, the Farmers' Assemblies and the Union of Farmers, Settlers and Small Landowners had the largest number of representatives.
Tensions in economy also deepened the conflicts in politics. The most important legislative acts that were passed were the Marital Law Act, the Grain Act and the new Public Primary schools Act. Besides that, a Bill was drafted which established the position of the Head of State and the reduction of the number of the members of the parliament from 100 to 80.
V Riigikogu was elected in May 1932. In January 1934, new Constitution entered into force. In March, martial law was declared and the activities of the Riigikogu were discontinued. The so-called silent era began.
On 6 March 1935, the activities of political parties and other political associations were prohibited.
The National Assembly convened on 18 February 1937 and its last sitting was held on 17 August 1937. The National Assembly consisted of two chambers that were headed by Jüri Uluots and Mihkel Pung. The National Assembly adopted the new Constitution, which was the basis for the elections of the bicameral 6th Riigikogu in 1938.
The bicameral 6th Riigikogu – the Chamber of Deputies and the National Council – represented the Estonian people in the period from 7 April 1938 to 5 July 1940. The actual work of the parliament ended already in April 1940.
The impact of the 6th Riigikogu on domestic and foreign political development was modest, the national representative body remained in the shadow of the President and the Government. On 24 April 1938, Konstantin Päts was elected President of the Republic at the joint sitting of the Riigikogu and the assembly of representatives of local governments. The Amnesty Act was passed in May the same year.
The elections of the Supreme Council in 1990 were held in principle on democratic bases. Already the preceding Supreme Council had adopted several Resolutions and Acts that made the way for an independent state. It had been preceded by half a century of the Soviet occupation where elections to the Supreme Soviet had been held but they had not been democratic.
The most important decision of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia was the Resolution on the national independence of Estonia, adopted on 20 August 1991.
The Constitutional Assembly was the representative body established for drawing up the new Constitution of the Republic of Estonia which was formed by the Committee of Estonia and the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia on 20 August 1991.
The Assembly functioned until 10 April 1992, it held 30 sittings and prepared the drafts of the new Constitution and the implementing Act.
The 7th Riigikogu carried the legislative power of Estonia from 30 September 1992 to 10 March 1995.
The VII Riigikogu was elected on 20 September 1992 on the basis of the Constitution adopted by referendum on 28 June 1992. Political parties, election coalitions, associations and independent candidates could participate in the elections. 8 election coalitions, 5 political parties, 39 lists of associations and 25 independent candidates took part in the elections. Altogether 628 persons ran as candidates at the elections of the Riigikogu. 67% of eligible voters participated in the elections.
The 8th Riigikogu represented Estonian citizens as the legislative power from 11 March 1995 to 13 March 1999.
On 5 March 1995, the second elections to the Riigikogu on the basis of the Constitution of 1992 were held. 7 election coalitions, 9 political parties and 12 independent candidates took part in the elections. Altogether 1256 persons ran as candidates. 68.9% of eligible voters participated in the elections. The winners of the elections were the political parties and election coalitions that had been in the opposition in the previous Riigikogu, i.e. the Centre Party and the Coalition Party, who formed an election coalition with the Estonian People's Union that united the political parties which had not been elected to the previous Riigikogu.
The 9th Riigikogu represented the citizens of Estonia as the legislative power from 14 March 1999 to 21 March 2003.
On 7 March 1999, the people of Estonia elected the IX Riigikogu. The Riigikogu was elected by 492,356 voters out of 857,270 citizens with the right to vote, or 57.43 per cent of eligible voters. 1901 persons ran as candidates in the Riigikogu elections. 1882 persons ran as party nominated candidates in the lists of 12 political parties, and 19 persons ran as independent candidates. The Estonian Centre Party received the greatest number votes – 113,378, or 23.41 % of the total number of votes, which gave them 28 seats in the Riigikogu. The Estonian Centre Party was popular mostly in rural areas. In the Riigikogu, the Centre Party remained in opposition.
The 10th Riigikogu held the legislative power of Estonia from 22 March 2003 to 26 March 2007.
On 2 March 2003, the citizens of Estonia elected the X Riigikogu. The Riigikogu was elected by 500,686 citizens out of 859,714 citizens with the right to vote which was 58.24 per cent of eligible voters. 963 persons stood as candidates in the Riigikogu elections. 952 persons stood as candidates on the lists of 11 political parties, and 16 persons stood as independent candidates. The highest number of votes was cast for the Estonian Centre Party, who received 125,709 votes (25,4 %), and the Union for the Republic – Res Publica (as of 9 June 2005, Res Publica), who received 121,856 votes (24,6 %). Both parties got 28 seats in the Riigikogu.
The 11th Riigikogu held the legislative power in Estonia from 27 March 2007 to 26 March 2011.
On 4 March 2007, the citizens of Estonia elected the XI Riigikogu. The Riigikogu was elected by 555,463 citizens out of 897,243 citizens with the right to vote which was 61 per cent of eligible voters. 975 persons stood as candidates in the Riigikogu elections. 968 persons stood as candidates on the lists of 11 political parties, and 7 persons stood as independent candidates. The highest number of votes was cast for the Estonian Reform Party, who received 153,044 votes (27.8 %), and the Estonian Centre Party, who received 143,518 votes (24.1 %).
The 12th Riigikogu represented the citizens of Estonia as the legislative power from 27 March 2011 to 23 March 2015.
On 6 March 2011, the citizens of Estonia elected the XII Riigikogu. The Riigikogu was elected by 580,264 voters out of 913,346 citizens with the right to vote, or 64 per cent of eligible voters. 789 persons ran as candidates in the Riigikogu elections. 757 persons ran as party nominated candidates in the lists of 9 political parties, and 32 persons ran as independent candidates. The highest numbers of votes were cast for the Estonian Reform Party, who received 164,255 votes (28.6%), and the Estonian Centre Party, who received 134,124 votes (23.3%).
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