Factions can be formed by and must consist of not less than five members of the Riigikogu elected from the same list of candidates. Members of the Riigikogu of one list of candidates can form only one faction.

Factions are registered with the Board of the Riigikogu. A faction elects from among its members a chairman and a deputy chairman. If a faction has more than 12 members, it has the right to elect a second deputy chairman.

Factions are groups through which a large part of the work of the parliament is done. In factions political decisions are agreed upon; the decisions form the basis for expressing one's opinion in a committee, at the sittings of the plenary assembly of the Riigikogu or in public. A faction is a place for making political agreements. This does not mean that there can never be different opinions within a faction.

Factions, like members of the Riigikogu and committees, have the right to initiate draft legislation. This ensures the opposition factions an opportunity to prepare and defend their own draft legislation in the Riigikogu.

Estonian Reform Party faction - 33 members
Estonian Centre Party faction - 20 members
Pro Patria and Res Publica Union faction - 22 members
Faction of the Social Democratic Party - 19 members

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